How to make a magnet

adminindustries2023-03-19 20:32:06


A magnet is known as a body capable of attracting metal objects located in its magnetic field, and the magnetic field is the area that is subject to the influence of that magnet. Living organisms on planet Earth live within a magnetic field called gravitational attraction, and as soon as they leave this field towards space, the effect of Earth's attraction ceases. In the past, people noticed the attraction of iron pieces to some stones when they approached a certain point, hence the discovery and exploitation of magnets in many inventions and tools that benefited man greatly.

The history of the discovery of magnets

The magnet is one of the very old discoveries. As the ancients discovered it through magnet stones that were magnetizing raw iron, and people from that time used it for several different uses, but the first writings about magnets are due to the Greeks, Indians and Chinese who described the magnet and described its properties, and with the development of science and the discovery of electricity, scientists discovered Other ways to make magnets by passing an electric current in a coil; As they discovered that the passage of electric current in the wires generates a magnetic current around them, and through this discovery they were able to reach many different inventions, such as generating electrical energy, which depends mainly on electromagnets.

The Arabs recorded the invention of the compass in this field, and this invention had a great impact on geographical discoveries and maritime navigation. Depending on the compass, new ways of determining directions were discovered, such as the GPS system.

The chemical composition of a natural magnet

The natural magnet is considered one of the minerals extracted from the earth without industrial interference, and it is called magnetic iron oxide with a chemical composition, (Fe 3 O 4 ), and it is also known as magnetite. It is known for its black color and was usually extracted in the past to make the compass, and the strength of the magnet varies from one stone to another. As for now, it is no longer of importance, as a magnet is made that exceeds the strength of the natural magnet.

Benefits and uses of magnets

One of the most important and widespread uses of magnets is the manufacture of electric motors, which depend entirely on magnets. In the moving member of the motor, another magnetic field is generated in it, and electricity is delivered to the moving member through an electric exchanger, and when the magnetic field is generated in the two parts of the motor, the moving member of the electric motor rotates as a result of the repulsion or attraction between the forces of the magnetic field.

It is also used in the manufacture of headphones and all loudspeakers, and it is used in cranes, the manufacture of refrigerator doors and telephone covers, the compass industry, and the sorting of metal pieces from others. The magnetic field is used in the advanced medical field, and it is involved in the treatment of many organic diseases, as well as in the manufacture of medical devices that detect diseases. It is clear from this that magnets are used in many complex and simple fields and industries in all aspects of life.

How to make magnets

A magnet can be made by passing an electric current in a piece or a metal wire (iron, steel, or nickel), and this small method can operate large motors with a greater voltage, and the magnet can be made by following the following steps:

  • Bring the necessary materials for the manufacture of the magnet, namely: an iron nail, a copper wire of suitable length and lightly insulated, a large size battery (in English: D-type battery), adhesive, and small iron pieces to test the magnet on.
  • A small part of the insulation is cut off from the wire from both ends, within a few centimeters, using wire cutters; This is in order to connect these parts to the battery.
  • The copper wire is wrapped around the nail so that each coil of wire is in contact with the one that follows it around the nail. Because this will affect the work of the magnet and the field generated from it.
  • The two uninsulated parts of the wire are connected to the battery poles, and then fixed using adhesive tape. It is not important to connect the wires to the battery in a specific order. Because the nail will be magnetized in both cases, but the difference is the stillness of the magnet poles.
  • By following the previous steps, the magnet will be ready, and it can be used to attract things, but it is important to pay attention not to touch the wire directly after a while, as it will heat up after a while of connecting it to the battery.

Industrial magnet features

Industrial magnets have great advantages that made their manufacture increase around the world and are included in many manufactured machines and engines. Because the natural magnet is not suitable for such industries, and among these features of the magnet:

  • Ease of controlling its shape during manufacturing to be in harmony with the nature of the machine and the power for which it is made.
  • Its magnetic force can be controlled by increasing or decreasing it by controlling the electric current.
  • The magnet does not lose its magnetism with the passage of time, as the electric current makes it magnetized again.
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