Soap is one of the products that cannot be dispensed with in our daily life, as it is not possible to feel complete cleanliness except when washing hands with soap and water, and there is soap in many commercial forms, including: solid soap molds, or liquid soap, or soap in the form of foam, and others, The forms of soap are limited to that used for washing hands, but there are many soap products, such as: hair shampoo, shower soap, dishwashing soap, shaving soap, soap used for washing clothes and many other products that are available in multiple packages, shapes and scents, and despite the availability of soap In its various forms in the commercial markets, however, many people prefer to make soap at home, and there are those who think at least of melting the leftover soap to make a new soap.
When washing hands with water alone, we notice that the results are not completely satisfactory, and that we will not be able to clean the hands of oils and dirt attached to them, and this is due to the fact that surface tension prevents water from penetrating the skin, hence our need for soap, and soap is produced as a by-product when washing hands. A chemical reaction occurs between animal fats and vegetable oils with an alkaline substance such as sodium salts, and soap is formed from a hydrocarbon chain, that is, it consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms, and one end of this chain is hydrophilic, while the other end is hydrophobic. : Hydrophobic), and when using soap and water to wash hands, the hydrophilic side is associated with water, while the other side is associated with dirt and oils that cover the skin, and thus water works to rinse dirt and oils easily, leaving the skin clean.
Experts advise using skin moisturizers regularly after washing them with soap, because soap contains powerful ingredients that can cause the skin to lose many of its natural oils, making it vulnerable to dryness. It may also irritate sensitive skin and exacerbate some skin problems, if any.
Melt the soap
Some prefer to use leftover soap that can no longer be used to produce new soap in different forms instead of throwing it away. Therefore, it is necessary to melt the soap to make it possible to form it, or to use it in the form of liquid soap, and the soap is melted using the microwave, or using gas.
Melt the soap using the microwave
Soap is melted using a microwave oven based on a scientific principle, Charles' law, which states that a high temperature of gases leads to an increase in their volume, and ordinary soap contains water and air inside it, and when heated, the water evaporates, the air heats up and expands, and because the soap has become soft in texture after heating it becomes It is easy for the expanding gases to rush out, and the soap expands in turn and turns into foam. The soap is melted using the microwave, following the following steps:
- Remove the wrapper from the piece of soap.
- Put the bar of soap on a paper napkin, or inside a microwave-safe dish, and insert it into the microwave.
- Microwave for 1.5-2 minutes and watch it melt.
- Leave the soap to cool for a minute or two before trying to touch it.
- Use soap as usual, as it will retain its cleaning ability even though it turns into a foamy form.
Melting soap using kitchen gas
The soap is melted using kitchen gas, following the following steps:
- Collecting soap residues at home, and it is preferable to choose types that have a similar smell so that the result is satisfactory and obtains a beautiful scent. It is also possible to choose soap without a scent if you want to add a perfume that has a specific smell after completing the preparation of the soap.
- Cut the soap into small chips using a grater, or a food processor.
- Heat distilled water in a saucepan until it starts to boil (between 226.8-283.5 grams of soap residue needs approximately 3.8 liters of water).
- Put the soap pieces in the water with continuous stirring until the soap pieces begin to dissolve, and the time it takes for the melting process depends on the size of the soap pieces, as small pieces need less time, and vice versa.
- Leave the soap for a period ranging between 12-24 hours to become thick with stirring from time to time.
- Whisk the soap using the whisk to obtain a smooth and homogeneous texture. A little water can be added if the mixture is too stiff. Essential oils can also be added to the mixture as desired.
- Put the soap in the soap dispenser, and the remaining can be saved in glass containers for later use.
Recycle melted soap
After melting the soap, it can be recycled and used as follows:
- While the soap is being heated to melt it, the amount of essential oil to be used for perfuming is measured in proportion to the amount of soap used and the degree of strength of the scent, and is added to the soap.
- Dyes can be added to the soap if desired or needed, while paying attention and making sure that these dyes are safe for use on the skin, and it is preferable that they be natural dyes.
- The mixture of soap, perfume, and dye is stirred gently to mix it together without bubbles forming in it.
- After completion, the soap is slowly poured into the mold to be used, and placed in a place so that it is not moved, and it is possible to put it in the refrigerator to speed up the process of cooling and hardening, but it is not placed in the freezer.
- When the soap becomes solid enough, it is removed from the mold and can be used immediately.
Method of making soap
Solid soap can be made at home by following these steps:
- Providing the necessary materials for the soap industry, namely:
- 4 kg of fats or oils.
- 350 g of soap making solution (sodium hydroxide).
- 750 ml of water.
- 500 ml of lemon juice.
- 7.5 ml of perfume.
- Heat the fat in a covered saucepan over medium heat until it melts, stirring occasionally.
- Remove the pot from the heat and leave the fat to become lower than the boiling point, then add an equal amount of water to it, return the pot to the heat and leave until the mixture boils, then remove from the heat, cover and leave overnight.
- Remove the fat from the pot, get rid of the liquids, and scrape the sticky, non-greasy substance that has formed at the bottom of the fat.
- Cut 2.75 kg of fat into small pieces, and put them in a large bowl (if using pure oils such as olive oil or coconut oil, this step can be skipped).
- Put the water in a non-metallic container, add the sodium hydroxide solution to it, and mix the ingredients together until the solution dissolves (it is preferable to carry out this step outside the house, or in a well-ventilated place, and be aware that the reaction will lead to a rise in the temperature of the mixture).
- Add small pieces of fat to the mixture of water and sodium hydroxide solution gradually, with constant stirring until the fat dissolves.
- Add lemon juice and perfume to the mixture as desired, stir the mixture until it becomes homogeneous, then pour the soap into the molds and cut it when it becomes coherent.
- Leave the soap for about an hour until it hardens, then wrap it in a clean cotton cloth. These pieces can be stored for a period of 3-6 months in a cool and well-ventilated place.