How to make soap

adminindustries2023-03-19 19:57:21


Soap is one of the most important industries that are part of a person's daily life, and it cannot be dispensed with. Since there is no house without soap, it is one of the industries that has been known for thousands of years and is still developing to this day with modern developments, so many factories specializing in the manufacture of soap spread around the world, and contribute to providing a group of different types of soap, which are important tools that people use in Various cleaning jobs, whether in their homes, businesses, schools or any other place. Soap is defined in the dictionary as the substance that is used for cleaning and washing things and various purposes.

Soap name

The word and name of soap expresses the Persian word sapon, which is a substance that contains a group of salts and fats and accepts dissolution in water. The Arabs used soap, so they made sure to manufacture it, and then it moved to European countries.

How to make soap

There are many methods used in the manufacture of soap, whether factory or at home, and the following is information on how to make soap:

Soap making in factories

The manufacture of soap in factories depends on the use of oils and fats, and two methods are used in this industry, namely:

  • The cold method:  It is an economical and inexpensive method for small-scale soap factories. Where this method depends on mixing glycerin with soap and is not separated from it.
  • The hot method:  It is a method used by large-scale soap factories. By relying on the use of the best types of glycerine, which is characterized by its high price; Which contributes to obtaining soap that is characterized by its good quality. As for how to make soap, it depends on the following steps:
    • The process of making soap, known as saponification, begins with a pot of between 5 and 150 tons.
    • The fat is placed in the pot until half of its volume is reached, and then it begins to be heated at a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius, depending on the use of steam directly, and later soda is added to it in the form of successive batches.
    • After a period of time after the required interaction between soda and fat has occurred, more concentrated amounts of soda must be added; By successive batches while maintaining boiling.
    • The saponification process (soap making) takes 12 to 24 hours, and the end of the process is confirmed by a set of tests.
    • After confirming the end of the saponification process, the glycerine and water are separated from the soap by relying on table salt, and it is left in the pot until its temperature reaches 60 degrees Celsius, and this process continues between two to five days.
    • After the completion of the previous step, a set of additives are added to the soap, such as colors, perfumes, and materials that help increase the volume of the soap, such as sodium silicate and sodium carbonate.
    • The ready-made soap material is added to molds or kneaded to increase its homogeneity, and later the soap pieces are cut into a group of pieces according to the required size, and the type and name of the soap are written on them.

Homemade soap making

Most families and families are interested in the homemade soap making process; In order to use it in cleaning operations inside the house, and in the following information on how to make soap at home:

  • The materials used in the soap industry,  which are a stick made of wood, a sharp knife, an iron bowl, a kilogram of caustic soda, 5 kilograms of olive oil, leather gloves, molds made of wood, and 5 liters of water.
  • The method of making homemade soap,  which includes the following steps:
    • The first step: water is placed inside the iron bowl, and later caustic soda is placed, and the mixture must be stirred well; By using the stick made of wood until the total melting of the soda material is reached, and then olive oil is added to the mixture while continuing to stir the mixture, and the mixture is soaked for a whole day, and it must be realized that soda is an incendiary substance that must be dealt with with caution and the use of paws to protect The hands are from it, and the bowl used in mixing the materials must not be made of aluminum; due to its interaction with soda.
    • The second step: The mixture is placed on the fire and stirred using the stick made of wood from time to time, then a perfume is added to the soap, and the process of boiling the soap mixture remains between 8 to 10 hours until the mixture matures, and it is possible to realize this when the nature of the mixture changes They become heavy and separate from the water that remains at the bottom of the pot.
    • The third step: The water leaking at the bottom of the pot must be removed and separated from the soap mixture, then the mixture is poured into a large mold made of wood, and before the soap material reaches the drying stage, it is cut according to the required sizes and shapes, and left to dry completely away from the sun, and cleaned for a while Two weeks or depending on the effect of the weather, and finally the soap is ready to be used at home.

Types of soap

Soap is classified into several types, namely:

  • Solid soap:  It is soap made from fats and oils with saturated acids mixed with sodium hydroxide.
  • Soft soap:  It is a soap that has a semi-liquid nature and its manufacture depends on saponifying potassium hydroxide with a group of fatty materials.
  • Commercial soap:  It is a soap that is made from cheap grease. Coconut oil is often used with this soap. The soap resulting from the grease is solid and does not dissolve easily. Which contributes to providing a suitable foam.
  • Unmelted solid soap:  It is soap made only from coconut oil, and it is distinguished by its hardness, but it is not used with plain water, but rather with salt water.
  • Transparent soap:  It is a good soap whose ingredients are coconut oil and castor oil.
  • Luxurious soap,  also called Castile soap, is made from olive oil.
  • Shaving soap:  It is a soap that has a soft nature, and its ingredients are sodium, stearic acid and potassium.
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