Textile, fibers, and woven threads are all synonyms for the word cloth, all of which are derived from the Latin word Textilis, or the French word Texere, which means knitting, and thus this word includes threads, ropes, braids, and fabrics that resulted from various knitting methods. and weave. The manufacture of fabrics or textiles began since the prehistoric era, when the cloth was manufactured using ancient manual machines, and it continued to develop until it reached what it is in our current era, where the cloth is produced using modern electronic machines. An example of ancient textiles is what the African people produced, which is the net. Silk, cotton, and flax fibers were also used as materials from which fabrics were made, especially in ancient Egypt. China also produced silk, and India produced cotton nearly 3,000 years ago.
How to make a cloth
The raw materials from which the fabric is made
The basic materials that go into making cloth include three categories, which are natural materials sourced from plants, natural materials sourced from animals, and materials manufactured by man. Examples of materials taken from the plant are cotton, which is harvested using machines, then sent to the factory for cleaning. Remove seeds and impurities from it. Flax is also considered one of the types of plants from which cloth is made, as it is pulled from the ground using hands, then processed, combed, seeds removed from it, and then prepared to make linen cloth from it. As well as silk, which is taken from the cocoon of silkworms.
The fabric that is made of cotton is called a fabric throughout the year, because it is suitable for all seasons of the year, as it gives the body coolness in the summer, and provides it with heat in the winter, and it is also soft and used in the manufacture of infant clothes. As for the fabric that is made from silk, it is one of the most expensive and luxurious types of fabrics, as it is used to manufacture luxurious clothes and expensive evening dresses due to its softness and luster. Indian silk has gained worldwide fame. Linen fabric is considered the king of natural fabrics, as it does not cause irritation or sensitivity to the skin when worn. This is due to its high natural properties. As for the materials that come from animals, they are wool, which is processed and prepared manually or using electronic machines. As for manufactured materials, there is rayon, which is an alternative to silk. It is always made from the best natural materials; This is because it does not change its color due to exposure to ultraviolet radiation and does not lose its properties.
The main steps of fabric manufacturing
The fabric of its various sources goes through three manufacturing steps. The first step begins with the production of threads or what is called spinning. This is done by processing raw materials and converting them from raw fibers into threads. Then the threads that are produced are collected on a wooden body called the pulley, which in turn transports ropes of threads. to another machine, and to continue the spinning process. After the yarn is prepared, it goes to production, which is the second step in the manufacturing process, where the yarn is linked together with a process called knitting, and it takes place on a machine known as the loom, where this machine is linked to a computer, and after the end of the knitting process, the yarn becomes similar to a white paper and is ready For the final step or finishing touches, the production, the fabric is cleaned of the grease and oils that naturally occur from the fibres. The aim of the last step, which is also called the finishing process, is to improve the product and make it suitable for consumption, as the fabric produced before the treatment process is dirty, harsh, unsuitable and likable to the consumer. The finishing process is composed of chemical and mechanical processes, such as bleaching and texture treatment. It is worth noting that untreated fabrics are called gray goods.
It cannot be said that the fabrics, after being processed, are ready for shipment and use in the manufacture of clothes, as they need to be colored, which is called dyeing. The dyeing process begins with placing the cloth in a machine called a Mercerizer, and this machine contains a mixture of a chemical solution at a very low temperature. of the mineral to be prepared and able to take more pigments. It is worth noting that in ancient times dyes were extracted from plants, but nowadays dyes are manufactured in chemical laboratories, and they are called reactive dyes, and their idea is based on their interaction with fine particles (moles) in the fibers of wet fabric, to form a strong bond and thus prove Color on the fabric.
The types of dyes differ according to the type of material used in them, as there are factors that are taken into account when choosing the dye, such as its stability when exposed to light, the extent to which it is affected by washing and rubbing, as well as its cost. The dyes that are used to dye wool, silk, and nylon are called acid dyes. As for the direct dyes, they are those dyes that are applied to fabrics that contain cellulosic fibers. There are color-establishing dyes to which chemical salts are added, and they are used to dye silk and wool. There are also sulfur dyes, which are used to dye cellulose, but they do not give a great brilliance to the cloth, as they are inexpensive dyes, and there are aromatic dyes that are used to dye cotton.
The evolution of fabrics
It can be said that there is not much evidence of the development of fabrics, and the reason for this is due to the speed of their damage and the disintegration of their tissues, except that they most likely took the form of animal skins since ancient times, as they were thrown on the body in order to obtain warmth. Sewing needles made of bones were found near Russia in 1988 AD, and they were used for sewing animal skins, and they are said to date back to about 18,000 BC. Clay tablets representing tissues dating back to 8,000 BC were also found, and textile residues dating back to about 6,500 BC were also found in Anatolia. Silk production and export in China began around 2,800 BC. At the beginning of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century, fabrics were traded among the wealthy, such as silk, lace, and linen, while ordinary people wore clothes made of cotton and wool.